PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL, PHARMACOGNOSTIC AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF ERANTHEMUM NIGRUM LEAF
Objective: To analyze the pharmacognostic characteristics and physiochemical parameters of the leaves of Eranthemum nigrum (E. nigrum).
Methods: Microscopic characters and powder analysis had been carried out with the help of a microscope. The physiochemical properties such as loss on drying, total ash value, acid insoluble ash value, water soluble ash value, extractive values and fluorescence of E. nigrum had been performed.
Results: Macroscopically, the leaves are simple, elliptical in shape, dull with smooth margins and acute apex. Microscopically, the leaf showed the presence of epidermal cells with uniseriate multicellular covering trichomes and diacytic stomata, followed by 4-6 layered collenchymatous cells and 10-14 numbered conjoint, collateral closed vascular bundles are some of the diagnostic characteristics observed from an anatomical study. Powder microscopy of leaf revealed the presence of uniseriate multicellular covering trichomes, lignified xylem vessels, epidermis with diacytic stomata and parenchyma cells. The investigations also included leaf surface data i.e., quantitative leaf microscopy and fluorescence analysis. Physiochemical parameters such as loss on drying, extractive values and ash values were also determined. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of steroids, alkaloids, tannins, saponins, carbohydrates, glycosides, amino acids and proteins.
Conclusion: The morphological, microscopical and physicochemical parameter results provided in this paper may be utilized as a basis for the preparation of a monograph on E. nigrum leaves.